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Property Law: Easement
(JND) – An easement is the right of use over the real property of another. Historically it was limited to the right of way and rights over flowing waters. Traditionally it was a right that could only attach to an adjacent land and was for the benefit of all, not a specific person. The right is often described as the right to use the land of another for a special purpose. It is distinguished from a license that only gives one a personal privilege to do something on the land of another usually the permission to pass over the property without creating a trespass.
Typically, an easement is composed of two tenements (types of land). There is the dominant tenement which is the plot of land to which the benefit an appurtenant easement is attached. Second, there is the subservient tenement which is the plot of land which bears the burden of the easement.
Easements may be considered public or private. A private easement is limited to a specific individual such as the owner of an adjoining land. A public easement is one that grants the right to a large group of individuals or to the public in general, such as the easement on public streets and highways or of the right to navigate a river. An appurtenant easement is one that belongs to the owner of the land that benefits from the easement, as compared to other easements (easements in gross) that do not require ownership to obtain the use.
An easement may be implied or express. An express easement is typically included in a document such as a deed or other officially recorded grant, or incorporated by reference to a subdivision plan, or restictive covenants in an association agreement.
Note that in US, in accordance with the 5th amendment, a property cannot simply be taken as an easement from a property owner. Instead, they must be compensated for their loss.
* Aviation easement. The right to use the airspace above a specified altitude for aviation purposes. Also known as avigation easement, where needed for low-altitude spraying of adjacent agricultural property.
* Railroad easement.
* Utility easements including:
o Storm drain easements. These carry rainwater to a river or other body of water.
o Sanitary sewer easements. These carry used water to a sewage treatment plant.
o Electrical power line easements.
o Telephone line easements.
o Fuel gas pipe easements.
* Sidewalk easements. Usually sidewalks are in the public right-of-way, but sometimes they are on the lot.
* Solar easements. Prevents someone from blocking the sunlight.
* View easements. Prevents someone from blocking the view of the easement owner, or permits the owner to cut the blocking vegetation on the land of another.
* Driveway easements, also known as easement of access. A few lots do not border a road, so an easement through another lot must be provided for access. Sometimes adjacent lots have “mutual” driveways that both lot owners share to access garages in the backyard. The houses are so close together that there can only be a single driveway to both backyards. The same can also be the case for walkways to the backyard: the houses are so close together that there is only a single walkway between the houses and the walkway is shared. Even when the walkway is wide enough, easements may exist to allow for access to the roof and other parts of the house close to a lot boundary. To avoid disputes, such easements should be recorded in each property deed.
* Beach access. Some jurisdictions permit residents to access a public lake or beach by crossing adjacent private property. Similarly, there may be a private easement to cross a private lake to reach a remote private property, or an easement to cross private property during high tide to reach remote beach property on foot.
* Dead end easement. Sets aside a path for pedestrians on a dead-end street to access the next public way. Could be contained in covenants of a homeowner association, notes in a subdivision plan, or directly in the deeds of the affected properties.
* Recreational easements. Some U.S. states offer tax incentives to larger landowners if they grant permission to the public to use their undeveloped land for recreational use (not including motorized vehicles). If the landowner posts the land (i.e., “No Trespassing”) or prevents the public from using the easement, the tax abatement is revoked and a penalty may be assessed.
* Conservation easements. Grants rights to a land trust to limit development in order to protect the environment.
Trespass upon easement:
Blocking access to someone who has an easement is a trespass upon the right of easement and creates a cause of action for civil suit. For example, putting up a fence across a long-used public path through private property may be a trespass and a court may order the obstacle removed. Turning off the water supply to a downhill neighbor may similarly trespass on the neighbor’s water easement.
Open and continuous trespassing upon an easement can lead to the extinguishment of an easement by prescription (see below), if no action is taken to cure the limitation over an extended period.
Easement by necessity:
Similarly, parcels without access to a public way may have a easement of access over adjacent land, if crossing that land is absolutely necessary to reach the landlocked parcel. There is an implied easement arising from the original subdivision of the land for continuous and obvious use of the adjacent parcel (e.g., for access to a road, or to a source of water). This easement is extinguished upon termination of the necessity (like if a new public road is built adjacent to the landlocked tenement). An easement by necessity is distinguished from an easement by implication in that the former easement arises only when “strictly necessary,” whereas the latter can arise when “reasonably necessary.”
However, the landlocked owner might be required to obtain a license for a new commercial use or to cause damage during access (e.g., a logging road or blazed trails). Some states, also, look disfavorably on granting easements by necessity when the need was created by the owner’s own actions, say, by selling off plots of land resulting in a landlocked parcel.
Some U.S. state statutes grant a permanent easement of access to any descendant of a person buried in a cemetery on private property.
A restrictive easement is a condition placed on land by its owner or by government that in some way limits its use, usually regarding the types of structures which may be built there or what may be done with the ground itself. For instance, if a leased piece of land is not precluded by zoning laws (probably because it is not in a township) from having people inhabit it, and the government feels that for some reason living there would be especially unsafe, it may place a restrictive easement on the property stating that no one may live there. Restrictive easements are also frequently placed on wetlands (i.e., a conservation easement) to prevent them from being destroyed by development.
Another type of restrictive easement is an historic preservation easement in which the owner of an historic structure agrees not to change specified historic elements of the facade. This has come under fire recently as property owners were claiming tax breaks for donating historic easements to charitable institutions, where the buildings were located in historic districts and changes were already strictly limited (i.e., the donation was worthless).
Easement by Prescription;
Easements by prescription, also called prescriptive easements, are implied easements that give adverse possession easement rights. They are a type of implied easements in that they arise even though they are not expressly created or recorded but unlike other implied easements, prescriptive easements are hostile (i.e., without the consent of the true property owner). Prescriptive easements do not convey the title to the property in question, only the right to utilize the property for a particular purpose. They often require less strict requirements of proof than fee simple adverse possession.
Once they become legally binding, easements by prescription hold the same legal weight as written or implied easements. Before they become binding, they hold no legal weight and are broken if true property owner acts to defend his ownership rights. Easement by prescription is typically found in legal systems based on common law, although other legal systems may also allow easement by prescription.
Laws and regulations vary among local and national governments, but some traits are common to most prescription laws. Generally, the use must be open (i.e. obvious to anyone), actual, continuous (i.e., uninterrupted for the entire required time period), and adverse to the rights of the true property owner. The use also generally must be hostile and notorious (i.e., known to others). Unlike fee simple adverse possession, prescriptive easements typically do not require exclusivity.
The period of continuous use for a prescriptive easement to become binding is generally between 5 and 30 years depending upon local laws (usually based on the the statute of limitations on trespass). Generally, if the true property owner acts to defend his property rights at any time during the required time period the hostile use will end, claims on adverse possesion rights are voided, and the continuous use time period resets to zero.
In some jurisdictions, if the use is not hostile but given actual or implied consent by the legal property owner, the prescriptive easement may become an regular or implied easement rather than a prescriptive easement and immediately becomes binding. In other jurisdictions, such permission immediately converts the easement into a terminable license, or restarts the time for obtaining a prescriptive easement.
Government owned property held for common use is generally immune from prescriptive easement in most cases, but some other types of government owned property may be subject to prescription in certain instances.
Prescription may also be used to end an existing legal easement. For example, if a subservient tenement holder would erect a fence blocking a legally deeded right of way easement, the dominant tenant would have to act to defend his easement rights during the statutory period or the easement may cease to have legal force, even though it remains a deeded document.
Right of way for access is among most common easement by prescription.
Easement in gross:
An easement that is attached to an individual person or legal entity rather than a parcel of real estate served by the easement. This easement can be personal (like an easement to use one’s boat ramp) or commercial (like an easement given to a railway company to build and maintain a rail line across one’s property) in nature. In earlier times easements in gross were considered neither assignable nor inheritable, but today, most courts hold that commercially-oriented easements in fee are freely alienable. See also Profit-a-Prendre.
Torrens title registration:
Under the Torrens title registration system of land ownership registration, easements and mortgages are recorded on the titles kept in the central Land Title Registry. Any unrecorded easement is extinguished and no easement by prescription or implication may be claimed.
Click Here to Read Cases on Easement Lawsuits in Montana
WATER LAW ISSUES AND INFORMATION
Leasing Water Rights Back to The State
85-2-141. Water leasing program.
(1) There is a water leasing program administered by the department on behalf of the state of Montana.
(2) The department may acquire rights to water needed for leasing under this program through appropriation of water in its own name or by agreement with or purchase from another holder of water rights.
(3) Water for leasing under the water leasing program must be obtained from the following sources:
(a) any existing or future reservoir in a basin concerning which a temporary preliminary decree, a preliminary decree under 85-2-231, or a final decree under 85-2-234 has been entered;
(b) Fort Peck reservoir, if an agreement between the department and the federal government concerning the acquisition of water and the sharing of revenue with the state is in effect;
(c) Tiber, Canyon Ferry, Hungry Horse, or Yellowtail reservoir if and as long as there is an agreement between the department and the federal government concerning the acquisition of water and sharing of revenue with the state from one or more of these reservoirs; and
(d) any other existing or future federal reservoir:
(i) located in a basin concerning which a temporary preliminary decree, a preliminary decree under 85-2-231, or a final decree under 85-2-234 has been entered; and
(ii) for which and for so long as there is an agreement between the department and the federal government concerning the acquisition of water and the sharing of revenue with the state.
(4) Water may be leased for any beneficial use. The amount of water that can be leased under this program for all beneficial uses may not exceed 50,000 acre-feet.
(5) The term of any lease may not exceed 50 years. A term may be extended up to another 50 years if the department again determines the desirability of leasing by applying the considerations in subsection (7). In making a redetermination, the department may require the completion of an environmental impact statement in accordance with subsection (6).
(6) The department shall require the completion of an environmental impact statement under the provisions of Title 75, chapter 1, for lease applications that would result in the consumption of 4,000 acre-feet a year or more and 5.5 cubic feet per second or more of water and for any other application for which an environmental impact statement is required by law. The department shall require the completion of an environmental impact statement whenever the cumulative effect of more than one application for a lease would constitute a probable significant environmental impact.
(7) Upon application by a person to lease water, the department shall make an initial determination of whether it is desirable for the department to lease water to the applicant. The determination of desirability must be made solely on the following considerations:
(a) the content of the environmental impact statement, if required;
(b) whether there is sufficient water available under the water leasing program; and
(c) whether the criteria, except as to legislative approval, set forth in 85-2-311 have been satisfied.
(8) The department shall for any agreement require commercially reasonable terms and conditions, which may include the requirement that up to 25% of the water to be leased be made available to a potential user for any beneficial use upon payment by the user of the costs of tapping into and removing water from the applicant’s project. The department may differentiate in pricing, depending on the proposed beneficial use of the water.
(9) The lease of water or the use of water under a lease does not constitute a permit, as provided in 85-2-102, and does not establish a right to appropriate water within the meaning of Title 85, chapter 2, part 3.
(10) For purposes of the water leasing program established in this section, it is the intent of the legislature that the state act as a proprietor.
History: En. Sec. 13, Ch. 573, L. 1985; amd. Sec. 445, Ch. 418, L. 1995.
85-2-103. Measurement of water.
(1) After July 1, 1899, a cubic foot of water (7.48 gallons) per second of time shall be the legal standard for the measurement of water in this state.
(2) Where water rights expressed in statutory or miner’s inches have been granted, 100 statutory or miner’s inches shall be considered equivalent to a flow of 2.5 cubic feet (18.7 gallons) per second, 200 statutory or miner’s inches shall be considered equivalent to a flow of 5 cubic feet (37.4 gallons) per second, and this proportion shall be observed in determining the equivalent flow represented by any number of statutory or miner’s inches.
(3) The provisions of this section shall not affect or change the measurement of water decreed by a court prior to July 1, 1899, but such decreed water shall be measured according to the law in force at the time such decree was made and entered.
History: (1)En. Sec. 1, p. 126, L. 1899; re-en. Sec. 4854, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 7107, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 7107, R.C.M. 1935; Sec. 89-817, R.C.M. 1947; (2)Ap. p. Sec. 2, p. 126, L. 1899; re-en. Sec. 4855, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 7108, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 7108, R.C.M. 1935; Sec. 89-818, R.C.M. 1947; Ap. p. Sec. 10, Ch. 185, L. 1907; re-en. Sec. 4877, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 7132, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 7132, R.C.M. 1935; Sec. 89-843, R.C.M. 1947; (3)En. Sec. 3, p. 126, L. 1899; re-en. Sec. 4856, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 7109, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 7109, R.C.M. 1935; Sec. 89-819, R.C.M. 1947; R.C.M. 1947, 89-817, 89-818, 89-819, 89-843(part).
85-2-117. Water right records for filing with local clerk and recorder. Upon payment of a fee established pursuant to 85-2-113, a county clerk and recorder of the county where the point of diversion or place of use is located or in which a transfer of water right occurred may require the department to provide a report of all water permits, certificates, change approvals, or water right ownership update forms issued or processed by the department pursuant to Title 85, chapter 2, parts 3 and 4.
History: En. Sec. 12, Ch. 805, L. 1991; amd. Sec. 4, Ch. 70, L. 2005.
85-2-132. Change of watercourse name — public notice. When such petition is filed in the district court, the court or the judge thereof shall designate some newspaper of general circulation in the county, such as is most likely to give all parties interested notice of the proceedings, and shall order that notice be published therein as hereinafter provided, and in his discretion he may require any other and further notice that to him may seem reasonable and shall fix a time at which objections to the granting of the petition for the change of name shall be heard. A copy of the petition, together with a notice of the time set for hearing objections thereto, shall be published in the newspaper designated by the court or judge for that purpose at least once a week for 4 successive weeks, and such other and further notice of the proceedings shall be given as the court or judge may in his discretion require.
History: En. Sec. 2, Ch. 101, L. 1911; re-en. Sec. 9969, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 9969, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, .
85-2-150. Chronically dewatered watercourse — identification.
(1) Using the factors in subsection (2) as guidelines, the department, in consultation with other agencies and groups, shall identify chronically dewatered watercourses or portions of watercourses.
(2) The factors the department shall consider when identifying chronically dewatered watercourses or portions of watercourses include but are not limited to the:
(a) extent, duration, and frequency of the dewatering;
(b) impact of the dewatering on fish, wildlife, or other natural resources;
(c) particular species of fish and wildlife impacted;
(d) impact of dewatering on other off-stream uses, including but not limited to agricultural, industrial, municipal, and recreational uses;
(e) probable cause of the dewatering;
(f) existence of temporary or final decrees;
(g) history, if any, of conflict among water rights holders on the watercourse;
(h) practicality and reasonableness of installing measuring devices on diversions along the watercourse; and
(i) likelihood that the installation of measuring devices will significantly help to:
(i) solve the chronically dewatered condition of the watercourse; or
(ii) resolve conflicts among water rights holders on the watercourse.
History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 543, L. 1991.
85-2-223. Public recreational uses. The department of fish, wildlife, and parks shall exclusively represent the public for purposes of establishing any prior and existing public recreational use in existing right determinations under this part, provided that the foregoing shall not exclude a federal governmental entity from representing the public for the purpose of establishing any prior and existing public recreational use in existing right determinations under this part. The foregoing shall not be construed in any manner as a legislative determination of whether or not a recreational use sought to be established prior to July 1, 1973, is or was a beneficial use.
History: En. Sec. 12, Ch. 697, L. 1979.
85-2-505. Waste and contamination of ground water prohibited.
(1) No ground water may be wasted. The department shall require all wells producing waters that contaminate other waters to be plugged or capped. It shall also require all flowing wells to be so capped or equipped with valves that the flow of water can be stopped when the water is not being put to beneficial use. Likewise, both flowing and nonflowing wells must be so constructed and maintained as to prevent the waste, contamination, or pollution of ground water through leaky casings, pipes, fittings, valves, or pumps either above or below the land surface. However, in the following cases the withdrawal or use of ground water may not be construed as waste under this part:
(a) the withdrawal of reasonable quantities of ground water in connection with the construction, development, testing, or repair of a well or other means of withdrawal of ground water;
(b) the inadvertent loss of ground water owing to breakage of a pump, valve, pipe, or fitting, if reasonable diligence is shown by the person in effecting the necessary repair;
(c) the disposal of ground water without further beneficial use that must be withdrawn for the sole purpose of improving or preserving the utility of land by draining the same or that must be removed from a mine to permit mining operations or to preserve the mine in good condition;
(d) the disposal of ground water used in connection with producing, reducing, smelting, and milling metallic ores and industrial minerals or that displaced from an aquifer by the storage of other mineral resources; and
(e) the management, discharge, or reinjection of ground water produced in association with a coal bed methane well in accordance with 82-11-175(2)(b) through (2)(d).
(2) The department at any time may hold a hearing on its own motion or upon petition signed by a representative body of users of ground water in any area or subarea to determine whether the water supply within that area or subarea is used in compliance with this part.
History: En. Sec. 16, Ch. 237, L. 1961; amd. Sec. 173, Ch. 253, L. 1974; amd. Sec. 47, Ch. 460, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 89-2926; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 578, L. 2001.
85-5-101. Appointment of water commissioners.
(1) Whenever the rights of persons to use the waters of any stream, ditch or extension of ditch, watercourse, spring, lake, reservoir, or other source of supply have been determined by a decree of a court of competent jurisdiction, including temporary preliminary, preliminary, and final decrees issued by a water judge, it is the duty of the judge of the district court having jurisdiction of the subject matter, upon the application of the owners of at least 15% of the water rights affected by the decree, in the exercise of the judge’s discretion, to appoint one or more commissioners. The commissioners have authority to admeasure and distribute to the parties owning water rights in the source affected by the decree the waters to which they are entitled, according to their rights as fixed by the decree and by any certificates and permits issued under chapter 2 of this title. When petitioners make proper showing that they are not able to obtain the application of the owners of at least 15% of the water rights affected and they are unable to obtain the water to which they are entitled, the judge of the district court having jurisdiction may appoint a water commissioner.
(2) When the existing rights of all appropriators from a source or in an area have been determined in a temporary preliminary decree, preliminary decree, or final decree issued under chapter 2 of this title, the judge of the district court may, upon application by both the department of natural resources and conservation and one or more holders of valid water rights in the source, appoint a water commissioner. The water commissioner shall distribute to the appropriators, from the source or in the area, the water to which they are entitled.
(3) The department of natural resources and conservation or any person or corporation operating under contract with the department or any other owner of stored waters may petition the court to have stored waters distributed by the water commissioners appointed by the district court. The court may order the commissioner or commissioners appointed by the court to distribute stored water when and as released to water users entitled to the use of the water.
(4) At the time of the appointment of a water commissioner or commissioners, the district court shall fix their compensation, require a commissioner or commissioners to purchase a workers’ compensation insurance policy and elect coverage on themselves, and require the owners and users of the distributed waters, including permittees and certificate holders, to pay their proportionate share of fees and compensation, including the cost of workers’ compensation insurance purchased by a water commissioner or commissioners. The judge may include the department in the apportionment of costs if it applied for the appointment of a water commissioner under subsection (2).
(5) Upon the application of the board or boards of one or more irrigation districts entitled to the use of water stored in a reservoir that is turned into the natural channel of any stream and withdrawn or diverted at a point downstream for beneficial use, the district court of the judicial district where the most irrigable acres of the irrigation district or districts are situated may appoint a water commissioner to equitably admeasure and distribute stored water to the irrigation district or districts from the channel of the stream into which it has been turned. A commissioner appointed under this subsection has the powers of any commissioner appointed under this chapter, limited only by the purposes of this subsection. A commissioner’s compensation is set by the appointing judge and paid by each district and other users of stored water affected by the admeasurement and distribution of the stored water. In all other matters the provisions of this chapter apply so long as they are consistent with this subsection.
(6) A water commissioner appointed by a district court is not an employee of the judicial branch, a local government, or a water user.
(7) A water commissioner who fails to obtain workers’ compensation insurance coverage required by subsection (4) is precluded from receiving benefits under Title 39, chapter 71, as a result of the performance of duties as a water commissioner.
History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 43, L. 1911; re-en. Sec. 7136, R.C.M. 1921; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 125, L. 1925; re-en. Sec. 7136, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 187, L. 1939; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 231, L. 1963; amd. Sec. 39, Ch. 452, L. 1973; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 51, L. 1975; R.C.M. 1947, 89-1001(1) thru (3), (5), (6); amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 444, L. 1979; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 246, L. 1983; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 468, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 7, Ch. 604, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 179, L. 2003; amd. Sec. 37, Ch. 416, L. 2005.
85-5-301. Complaint by dissatisfied user.
(1) A person owning or using any of the waters of the stream or ditch or extension of the ditch who is dissatisfied with the method of distribution of the waters of the stream or ditch by the water commissioner or water commissioners and who claims to be entitled to more water than he is receiving or to a right prior to that allowed him by the water commissioner or water commissioners may file his written complaint, duly verified, setting forth the facts of the claim. Thereupon the judge shall fix a time for the hearing of such petition and shall direct that such notice be given to the parties interested in the hearing as the judge considers necessary. At the time fixed for the hearing, the judge must hear and examine the complainant and other parties as may appear to support or resist such claim and examine the water commissioner or water commissioners and witnesses as to the charges contained in the complaint.
(2) Upon the determination of the hearing, the judge shall make such findings and order as he considers just and proper. If it appears to the judge that the water commissioner or water commissioners have not properly distributed the water according to the provisions of the decree, the judge shall give the proper instructions for such distribution. The judge may remove any water commissioner and appoint some other person in his stead if he considers that the interests of the parties in the waters mentioned in the decree will be best subserved thereby, and if it appears to the judge that the water commissioner has willfully failed to perform his duties, he may be proceeded against for contempt of court, as provided in contempt cases. The judge shall make such order as to the payment of costs of the hearing as appears to him to be just and proper.
History: En. Sec. 15, Ch. 43, L. 1911; re-en. Sec. 7150, R.C.M. 1921; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 125, L. 1925; re-en. Sec. 7150, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 13, Ch. 460, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 89-1015.
81-4-101. Legal fences defined. Any one of the following, if not less than 44 inches or more than 48 inches in height, shall be a legal fence in the state of Montana:
(1) all fences constructed of at least three barbed, horizontal, well-stretched wires, the lowest of which must not be less than 15 inches or more than 18 inches from the ground, securely fastened as nearly equidistant as possible to substantial posts firmly set in the ground or to well-supported leaning posts not exceeding 20 feet apart or 33 feet apart where two or more stays or pickets are used equidistant between posts. All corral fences which are used exclusively for the purposes of enclosing stacks which are situated outside of any lawful enclosure shall not be less than 16 feet from such stack so enclosed and shall be substantially built with posts not more than 8 feet distant from each other and not less than five strands of well-stretched barbed wire and shall not be less than 5 or more than 6 feet high. Any kind of a fence equally as effectual for the purpose of a corral fence may be made in lieu thereof.
(2) all fences constructed of any standard woven wire not less than 28 inches in height, securely fastened to substantial posts not more than 30 feet apart, provided that two equidistant barbed wires shall be placed above the same at a height of not less than 48 inches from the ground;
(3) all other fences made of barbed wire, which shall be as strong and as well calculated to protect enclosures as those above described;
(4) all fences consisting of four boards, rails, or poles with standing or leaning posts not over 17 feet and 6 inches apart, provided that, if leaning posts are used, there shall be a pole or wire fastened securely on the inside of the leg or support of such leaning post;
(5) all rivers, hedges, mountain ridges and bluffs, or other barriers over or through which it is impossible for stock to pass.
History: En. Sec. 1, p. 46, L. 1881; amd. Sec. 1, p. 76, L. 1885; amd. Sec. 1111, 5th Div. Comp. Stat. 1887; amd. Sec. 3250, Pol. C. 1895; amd. Sec. 1, p. 139, L. 1901; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 37, L. 1905; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 64, L. 1913; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 163, L. 1919; re-en. Sec. 3374, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3374, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1401.
81-4-102. Construction of auto pass not to deprive legal fence of character. There may be maintained in a legal fence a pass so constructed that automobiles and trucks may pass over the same and which will prevent the passage of livestock across said opening without depriving such fence of the character of a legal fence under the laws of this state.
History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 153, L. 1933; re-en. Sec. 4486.3, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 16-1129.
81-4-103. Civil liability. Any person constructing or maintaining any fence of any kind not described in 81-4-101 is liable in a civil action for all damages caused by reason of injury to stock resulting from such defective fence.
History: En. Secs. 1112 to 1120, 5th Div. Comp. Stat. 1887; re-en. Sec. 3251, Pol. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 2083, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 3375, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3375, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1402.
81-4-104. Barbed wire fences to be kept in repair. The owners of barbed wire fences must keep the same in repair, and any person receiving notice in writing that his barbed wire fence or any part thereof is down or in such condition as to be likely to injure any livestock and fails or refuses to repair such fence is liable to pay damages in an amount equal to the value of any cattle, horses, mules, or other domestic animals which may be injured by coming into contact with the fence.
History: En. Secs. 1112 to 1120, 5th Div. Comp. Stat. 1887; re-en. Sec. 3252, Pol. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 2084, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 3376, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3376, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1403.
81-4-105. Fallen wire fencing declared nuisance — abatement. All barbed wire and other wire fencing which has sagged or fallen to the ground so as to be ineffectual for the purpose of turning stock and a menace to any person riding or walking over the same is declared to be a public nuisance and subject to abatement in the manner hereinafter provided.
History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 84, L. 1927; re-en. Sec. 3376.1, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1404.
81-4-106. Notice to owner to repair fence — duty of county commissioners. Upon ascertaining the existence in the county of any nuisance specified in 81-4-105, the board of county commissioners shall notify by registered or certified mail the owner of such wire, if such owner be known to said board and within the state, to remove same. If such owner shall fail to remove said wire or to rebuild said fence within 60 days following receipt of said notice, the board of county commissioners shall have authority to remove and dispose of said wire in the manner provided by 81-4-107.
History: En. Sec. 2, Ch. 84, L. 1927; re-en. Sec. 3376.2, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1405.
81-4-107. Procedure when owner unknown or not resident of state — sale of wire removed. If there is no known owner of such wire within the state or if such owner is unknown to the board of county commissioners, the board may collect and remove the wire at the expense of the county. All such wire or other fencing as in the opinion of the board of county commissioners can be sold at a price sufficient to cover at least the expense of removal and sale shall be sold by the county commissioners in the manner provided by law for the sale of county property, except that notice of such sale need be published only once and need be given only 10 days before such sale.
History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 84, L. 1927; re-en. Sec. 3376.3, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 50, Ch. 12, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1406.
81-4-108. Disposal of proceeds of sale of wire after payment of expense. The proceeds of such sale shall be used to defray the cost of collecting and selling said wire, and the balance, if any, shall be placed by the county treasurer in a special fund and shall be held by him subject to claim by any person establishing to the satisfaction of the board of county commissioners that he was the lawful owner of said wire and entitled to the remaining proceeds of such sale. If no person claims said money within 1 year of the date of sale, the same shall be deposited in the general fund of the county.
History: En. Sec. 4, Ch. 84, L. 1927; re-en. Sec. 3376.4, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1407.
81-4-201. Animals running at large. It is unlawful for an owner or person in control of swine, sheep, llamas, alpacas, bison, ostriches, rheas, emus, or goats to willfully permit the animals to run at large.
History: En. Sec. 1165, Pen. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 8838, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 3393, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3393, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 169, L. 1945; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1704; amd. Sec. 10, Ch. 166, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 5, Ch. 417, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 9, Ch. 206, L. 1995.
(1) Any person violating 81-4-201 is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be fined not more than $500 and is liable for damages to any party injured by the violation, in any court having competent jurisdiction.
(2) All fines collected under the provisions of this section, except those collected in a justice’s court, must be paid into the county treasury for the use and benefit of the public schools.
81-4-203. Open range defined. In 81-4-204, 81-4-207, and 81-4-208, the term “open range” means all lands in the state of Montana not enclosed by a fence of not less than two wires in good repair. The term “open range” includes all highways outside of private enclosures and used by the public whether or not the same have been formally dedicated to the public.
History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 63, L. 1925; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 85, L. 1931; re-en. Sec. 3400.1, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1707(part).
81-4-204. Male equine animals not to run on open range. It shall be unlawful for any owner, person, firm, corporation, or association having the management or control of any stallion, ridgeling, unaltered male mule, or jackass over the age of 1 year to permit or suffer such animal to run at large on the open range.
81-4-206. Killing animal to prevent injury not prohibited. Sections 81-4-203 through 81-4-209 are not intended and shall not be interpreted or understood to limit or deny the right now existing to destroy or kill any such animal to prevent injury by it to any person or property
81-4-207. Castration of animals running at large — notice to owner — expense and charges.
(1) Any person may take up and secure any such animal found running at large on the open range. After taking it up he shall, without unnecessary delay, post at the United States post office or as near as may be to the place where the animal was taken up a notice truly dated and subscribed by him or his agent to the effect that the animal, describing it by marks and brands (if any), color, and sex, was taken up on the day named while it was running at large on the open range in the county (naming the county) and that, unless claimed and removed within 5 days next after the date of the posting, the animal will be castrated at the expense of the owner thereof. Should the owner, person, firm, corporation, or association having management or control of such animal be known to the person who took the animal up, personal service of such notice upon the owner, person, firm, corporation, or association having management or control of the animal shall be the equivalent to the posting. The notice, if personally served, may state that, unless the animal is claimed and removed within 2 days next after the date of the notice served personally, the animal will be castrated at the expense of the owner thereof.
(2) If such animal so taken up be not claimed and removed within said 5 days or said 2 days, as the case may be, it may lawfully be castrated in the usual manner and doing no more harm than is necessary. The expense of castration shall be paid by the owner. If such animal be claimed within the time herein prescribed, the claimant shall pay to the person who took the animal up the reasonable expense of the keeping and feed thereof since it was taken up and also the sum of $5 for the taking up and giving of the notice aforementioned. Upon making such payments the claimant shall immediately remove and take away said animal.
History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 63, L. 1925; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 85, L. 1931; re-en. Sec. 3400.3, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1709.
81-4-208. Killing of animal running at large — notice — posting and service. (1) If any such animal so running at large cannot, by reasonable effort, be captured, taken up, or corralled, it may lawfully be killed unless the owner or person having the management or control of it shall take the animal off the open range and restrain it from running at large thereon within 10 days next after the giving of notice as hereinafter provided. The notice shall be signed by one or more taxpayers of the vicinity of the range whereon such animal be at large and be substantially as follows:
“To whom it may concern:
Take notice, that a certain (stallion, ridgeling, unaltered male mule, or jackass, as the case may be) is running at large on the open range (identify the range by general description) in …. County, Montana. Unless said animal be removed therefrom and restrained from running at large on open range, within 10 days next after the date of this notice, it will be killed.
(Date) (Signature or signatures)”
(2) The notice shall be posted at the post office nearest the place where the animal was last seen on the range and like notices in two other of the most public places in the vicinity of said range, and like notice shall at once be mailed to the owner or person having management or control of the animal, if his name and address be known.
History: En. Sec. 4, Ch. 63, L. 1925; amd. Sec. 4, Ch. 85, L. 1931; re-en. Sec. 3400.4, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1710.
81-4-214. Branding animals running at large — running irons prohibited. Every person except an owner, and the owner only when branding on the owner’s own premises and in the presence of two responsible citizens, who marks or brands any calf or cattle that are running at large between December 1 and May 10 of the next ensuing year and every person who shall at any time brand or cause to be branded or marked any horse, mule, cattle or head of cattle, sheep, llama, alpaca, bison, swine, or other animal, 1 year old or older, with any piece of metal or implement, other than a branding iron, which branding iron must be of the same design as the brand or mark owned by the party using it, or who marks or brands or causes to be marked or branded any of the animals listed in this section with any piece or pieces of iron called “running irons”, such as bars, rings, half or quarter circles, is punishable by imprisonment in the county jail for not exceeding 6 months or by a fine of not less than $25 or more than $500, or both.
History: En. Sec. 1189, Pen. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 8863, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 11553, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 11553, R.C.M. 1935; Sec. 94-3522, R.C.M. 1947; redes. 46-1720 by Sec. 29, Ch. 513, L. 1973; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1720; amd. Sec. 11, Ch. 166, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 6, Ch. 417, L. 1993.
81-4-215. Liability of owners of stock for trespass. If any cattle, horses, mules, asses, hogs, sheep, llamas, alpacas, bison, or other domestic animals break into any enclosure and the fence of the enclosure is legal, as provided in 81-4-101, the owner of the animals is liable for damages to the owner or occupant of the enclosure if the owner or person in control of the animals was negligent. This section may not be construed to require a legal fence in order to maintain an action for injury done by animals running at large contrary to law. In the case of trespassing animals in a herd district, the liability and damage provisions of 81-4-307 apply.
History: En. Sec. 1119, 5th Div. Comp. Stat. 1887; re-en. Sec. 3258, Pol. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 2090, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 3378, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3378, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 199, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1409; amd. Sec. 12, Ch. 166, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 7, Ch. 417, L. 1993; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 431, L. 2003.
81-4-216. Damage to planted trees. In case of any damage done to planted trees by animals, the owner of the trees may recover damages from the owner of the animals, if said trees are planted inside of a lawful fence or boxed to a height of not less than 5 feet.
History: En. Sec. 3281, Pol. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 2096, Rev. C. 1907; re-en. Sec. 3377, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3377, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1408.
81-4-217. Retention of trespassing stock.
(1) If an animal breaks into an enclosure surrounded by a legal fence or is wrongfully on the premises of another, the owner or occupant of the enclosure or premises may take into possession the trespassing animal and keep the animal until all damages, together with reasonable charges for keeping and feeding the animal, are paid. The person who takes the animal into possession shall, within 24 hours after taking possession, give written notice to the owner or person in charge of the animal, stating that the animal has been taken. The notice must also give the date of the taking, the description of the animal taken, including marks and brands, if any, the amount of damages claimed, the charge per head per day for caring for and feeding the animal, and the description, either by legal subdivisions or other general description, of the location of the premises on which the animal is held.
(2) The notice must be given to the owner or person in charge only when the owner or person in charge of the animal is known to the person taking the animal and resides within 25 miles of the premises on which the animal was taken. If the owner or person in charge of the animal resides more than 25 miles from the place of the taking, the notice must be mailed to the owner. In this case or if the owner is unknown, a similar notice must be mailed to the department of livestock and the sheriff of the county in which the animal has been taken. On receipt of the notice, the sheriff shall post a copy of the notice at the courthouse and shall send by certified mail a copy of it to the owner of the stock, if known to the sheriff. If unknown, the sheriff shall send a copy of the notice to the nearest state livestock inspector.
(3) If the parties within 5 days after receipt of the notice do not agree to the amount of damages, the claimant shall within 10 days institute a civil action to collect the claim in a court of competent jurisdiction. Pending the outcome of the suit, the person taking the stock may, at the expense of the owner, retain a sufficient number of animals to cover the amount of damages claimed by the person taking the stock. The owner or person in charge of the animal may, after the institution of the action, on filing a bond executed by two or more sureties and approved by the court in double the sum sued for, conditioned upon the payment to the claimant of all sums, including costs that may be recovered by the claimant, have all livestock returned. The claimant is liable to the owner for any loss or injury to the stock occurring through the claimant’s fault or neglect. If the claimant fails to recover in the action a sum equal to that offered by the owner of the stock, the claimant bears the expense of keeping and feeding the stock while in the claimant’s possession.
(4) A person who takes or rescues an animal from the possession of the person taking the animal, without the consent of the person taking the animal, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as provided in 46-18-212.
History: En. Sec. 8, p. 48, L. 1881; re-en. Sec. 1120, 5th Div. Comp. Stat. 1887; re-en. Sec. 3259, Pol. C. 1895; re-en. Sec. 2091, Rev. C. 1907; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 231, L. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3379, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3379, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 146, Ch. 310, L. 1974; amd. Sec. 51, Ch. 12, L. 1977; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1410; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 35, L. 1983; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 92, L. 1995.
81-4-402. Punishment for permitting trespass of livestock. Any person owning livestock or having in charge any horses, mules, cattle, sheep, llamas, alpacas, bison, goats, or swine who willfully and unlawfully permits the livestock to trespass in violation of any of the provisions of 81-4-401 is guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be punished as provided by law.
History: En. Sec. 2, Ch. 65, L. 1917; re-en. Sec. 3402, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3402, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1715; amd. Sec. 15, Ch. 166, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 10, Ch. 417, L. 1993.
81-4-405. Service upon owner. If such owner be known and if his post-office address shall be known as hereinbefore specified, such notice shall be served upon him or her personally.
History: En. Sec. 3, Ch. 161, L. 1921; re-en. Sec. 5177, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 5177, R.C.M. 1935; R.C.M. 1947, 46-2003.
81-4-601. Estray defined. In this part, “estray” means a horse, mule, mare, gelding, colt, llama, alpaca, bison, cow, ox, bull, stag, steer, heifer, calf, sheep, or lamb:
(1) not bearing a brand and the ownership of which cannot be determined by the stock inspector of the district in which the animal is found by inquiry among reputable resident stock owners or freeholders;
(2) bearing a recorded brand, the owner of which brand cannot be located at or through the post office designated on the records of the department or which owner cannot be located by the stock inspector of the district where the estray is found by inquiry among reputable resident stock owners or freeholders; or
(3) which bears an unrecorded brand, the owner of which unrecorded brand cannot be ascertained by the stock inspector of the district in which the animal is found by inquiry among reputable resident stock owners or freeholders.
History: En. Sec. 5, Ch. 34, L. 1915; re-en. Sec. 3337, R.C.M. 1921; re-en. Sec. 3337, R.C.M. 1935; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 112, L. 1959; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 37, L. 1963; amd. Sec. 137, Ch. 310, L. 1974; R.C.M. 1947, 46-1005; amd. Sec. 16, Ch. 166, L. 1989; amd. Sec. 11, Ch. 417, L. 1993.